Sermons, Uncategorized

Out of Egypt

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“Flight into Egypt” by Jean-Francois Millet

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Now when they had departed, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream and said, “Rise, take the child and His mother, and flee to Egypt, and remain there until I tell you, for Herod is about to search for the child, to destroy Him.” And he rose and took the Child and His mother by night and departed to Egypt and remained there until the death of Herod. This was to fulfill what the Lord had spoken by the prophet, “Out of Egypt I called my son.”

Then Herod, when he saw that he had been tricked by the wise men, became furious, and he sent and killed all the male children in Bethlehem and in all that region who were two years old or under, according to the time that he had ascertained from the wise men. Then was fulfilled what was spoken by the prophet Jeremiah:

“A voice was heard in Ramah, weeping and loud lamentation, Rachel weeping for her children; she refused to be comforted, because they are no more.” (Matthew 3:13-18).

Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ!

Joseph. It’s a good old-fashioned name. “Yahweh has added.” It’s the name that Rachel gave to her son when, finally after so many years of waiting, she gave birth to a child. Joseph, son of his famous father Jacob, was now in the world. And Joseph would act with such trust and valor throughout his life that he would be well remembered, and his name would be often given to little baby boys.

You know the story of Joseph, son of Jacob. Jacob loved his boy and gave him a coat of many colors. His older brothers hated him so much that they faked his death and sold him into slavery. Carted off to Egypt, Joseph became a slave in Potiphar’s household. In fact, he became master of the house until Potiphar’s wife falsely accused him because he refused to share in her sin. Though innocent, Joseph was sent to jail, and he languished in that Egyptian prison for years.

Eventually, his ability to interpret dreams came to the attention of Pharaoh. And because Joseph was able to interpret Pharaoh’s troubling dreams, Pharaoh released him from prison and made him second-in-command of all of Egypt. In that post, Joseph saved the Egyptians from famine. He saved many others, too.

For instance, his brothers. The same brothers, who had so cruelly sold him into slavery years before, now came to Egypt looking for food. Joseph toyed with them for a while, but only to test the sincerity of their repentance. And when he was assured of their change of heart, he revealed who he was.

His brothers feared for the worst—that it was now payback time. But Joseph spoke words that have echoed through the centuries:  “You intended to harm me, but God intended it for good to accomplish what is now being done, the saving of many lives.” (Genesis 50:20). Rather than seek revenge, Joseph provided for his brothers and his families. This was all part of God’s plan to save—to deliver Israel, His chosen people. In fact, this was even a part of God’s plan to save the world from their sins.

His providence would not always be that apparent. After Joseph died, they would be slaves in Egypt for 400 years. But then the Lord would send Moses and lead them back out of Egypt.

Back out of Egypt—you know the story of the Exodus well, too. After ten plagues, the Lord finally convinced Pharaoh to let His people go. The Israelites were delighted to leave Egypt and slavery, they were ready to trust in the Lord’s promises and to let Him lead them to the Promised Land.

At least, until they got to the Red Sea (not very far), at which time they said to Moses, “Was it because there were no graves in Egypt that you brought us to the desert to die? What have you done to us by bringing us out of Egypt?” (Exodus 14:11). So much for delight and trust!

And of course, there was that little incident out at Mt. Sinai on the way to the Promised Land. The same people who had seen the Red Sea part, lasted just about two seconds at the foot of the mountain as they waited for Moses to speak with the Lord, and then they asked Aaron to make a golden calf to worship instead. It’s a testament to God’s patience that He didn’t wipe them out then.

We could speak of their grumblings about the food in the wilderness as they resented the manna that God gave them each morning. We could spend some time repeating their statements of how they’d like to go back to Egypt and slavery just for a few cucumbers, leeks, and melons. We could mention that the Lord led them right up to the Promised Land, but that they had to spend an extra forty years in the wilderness because they didn’t believe that God was a match for tall people.

But rather than dwell on their disobedience in the desert, let’s fast-forward to their life after conquering the Promised Land by the Lord’s strength and power. Let’s see how carefully they kept God’s Word and lived according to His commands.

Take, for instance, the time of the Judges, when…well, when every man went and did what was right in his own eyes, when time and time again the people had to be punished for their disobedience, and God had to raise up a judge to deliver them. Okay. Never mind. Perhaps we’d better move on. Take the reign of Rehoboam, when…well, when the country divided and the ten tribes began to worship golden calves. Or later on, when the people are either killed or taken into captivity because of their persistent rejection of God’s Law and Gospel.

In such a sordid history, a stand-up guy like Joseph really stands out. Although he suffers dearly, he brings his family down to Egypt to save them from certain death. Because he saves them, they can later return from Egypt and go back to the Promised Land—and be disobedient some more.

One wonders what Joseph would think of all that happened after his death, for the nation whom he saved from starvation by God’s grace certainly rejected the faith that sustained him.

At any rate, “Joseph, son of Jacob” was a well-known hero. And so it was a popular name. In fact, centuries later, there was another Jacob who had a son. And this Jacob named his son Joseph. And this Joseph was betrothed to a virgin named Mary, who was found to be with child by the Holy Spirit.

After the Child was born, an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream, “Get up,” he said, “Take the Child and His mother and escape to Egypt. Stay there until I tell you, for Herod is going to search for the Child to kill Him.”

Here we go again. Another Joseph-son-of-Jacob heading down to Egypt. This time, the purpose is far more specific than the salvation of God’s chosen people, Israel. This Joseph is going to Egypt to save God’s chosen Savior, Jesus.

Like his namesake of old, this Joseph is also obedient and faithful. When he got up, he took the Child and His mother during the night and left for Egypt, where he stayed until the death of Herod. And so was fulfilled what the Lord has said through the prophet:  “Out of Egypt I called My Son” (Matthew 2:14-15).

Joseph takes Mary and her Baby to Egypt, and there they stay until Herod dies.  Then, when Herod was dead, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared in a dream to Joseph in Egypt, saying, “Get up, take the Child and His mother and go to the land of Israel, for those who were trying to take the Child’s life are dead.”

So he got up, took the Child and His mother, and went to the land of Israel. But when he heard that Archelaus was reigning in Judea in place of his father Herod, he was afraid to go there. Having been warned in a dream, he withdrew to the district of Galilee, and he went and lived in a town called Nazareth. So was fulfilled what was said through the prophets, “He will be called a Nazarene.”

So Joseph-son-of-Jacob, having taken Mary and Jesus to Egypt, now brings them back to the Promised Land, and they find a home in Nazareth, just like the prophets said it would be. That’s what our text tells us today.

But the big question is this: So what? Why does it matter to me that the family went to Egypt and back? The story seems to have little significance. Ah, but there is much Good News here for us in the stories of Josephs, sons of Jacobs.

For one thing, Matthew insistently points out that this trip takes place to fulfill what the prophets had said about the Messiah. Even as a toddler, Jesus is proving Himself to be the Savior—even as He will by fulfilling prophecies about healings and other miracles. The trip to Egypt adds to His credentials as the Christ. But there is more for us to rejoice in here.

Remember the story of the original Joseph. And especially remember the original Israelites’ trip to Egypt. The Israelites who go down to Egypt and Joseph’s care are his brothers—the brothers who gave into jealousy, faked his death, deceived his father, stole his coat, sold him into slavery, and dismissed him as gone. This is hardly a righteous group of characters, these Israelites who make their way to Egypt and Joseph’s care.

Furthermore, consider the Israelites who leave Egypt 400 years later, who survived because of Joseph’s invitation. They constantly doubt God’s promises, bow down to false gods, challenge Moses, and complain about the Lord’s deliverance, and gripe about the Lord’s provision. They do so all the way to the Promised Land. And after that, they get even worse about it.

The point is this. All the way down to Egypt and all the way back to the Promised Land, the Israelites are a bunch of thankless and unrighteous sinners.

Now, remember the story of Joseph, husband of Mary. More specifically, look at the Child whom he delivers to Egypt and back. This Toddler—likely about 2 years old—makes the arduous journey to Egypt without a single sin. He arrives at His exile completely righteous and holy. Later on, He makes the journey back from Egypt to Nazareth in the Promised Land. And as He does so, He is still wholly righteous and without sin.

The point of this remembrance is this. The Toddler Jesus makes the same trip that Old Testament Israel did. And He makes it while perfectly trusting God and perfectly obeying His parents. He makes the trip without a single sin.

If this seems like nothing worth remarking on, then you’ve never gone on a long car ride with a two-year-old.

The Son of God makes this rough journey in part because He has taken on human flesh to be the Savior. And since life is rough for man, man’s Savior gets no special favors. But more importantly, the Son of God makes the trip because He is the Savior of all who believe in Him, even those Israelites of the Exodus. And in His trip to Egypt, He is hard at work to save.

You see, in preparation for Judgment Day, the Savior Jesus now makes this declaration to those long-gone Israelites of the Old Testament. He says, “When you went down to Egypt, you were full of all sorts of sin—just from the way you treated your brother Joseph. And when you left Egypt for the Promised Land, you were an unrighteous lot of grumbling, unfaithful idolaters. These sins merit the punishment of eternal death. That is what you deserve.

“But I am your Savior, and I save you from death. Therefore, I went to Egypt, too. I made the trip down to Pharaoh’s land, but I did it perfectly, without sin. I stayed in exile there for a while, and I stayed perfectly righteous in doing so. Then I made the trip out of Egypt—and I did so without a single sin. And, back in the Promised Land, I didn’t turn to false gods and idols. I stayed obedient to My Father’s will, even went to the cross at His bidding.

“I did this for you, so that you might be forgiven. I’ve lived to give you credit for my righteousness. And I’ve died to take away your sin. You see, when My Father looks upon you, He says, ‘When I look upon you, I don’t see your sins, your shabby treatment of Joseph, or your grumblings in the wilderness and idolatry in Canaan. My Son has taken all of that away. Instead, when I look at you, I see My Son’s perfect sinlessness as He travels down to Egypt. I see His perfect holiness as He lives there. I see His righteousness and obedience as He travels back to Nazareth and submits to His parents. I see these things because Jesus did them for you and gives you the credit for them. That’s why you’re saved from your sin. That’s why heaven is yours.’”

Therefore, this Gospel lesson does much to teach us of the Gospel itself. Jesus has lived and died for you. He has lived a perfect life so that He can give you credit for His perfect life. He has died the sinner’s death so that you don’t have to die for your sin.

Therefore, consider some of those sins that may well be prevalent as the holiday season begins to fade. It may be the anger of toddlers who are screaming because of a broken toy or just because they want to assert their will.

It may be the covetousness of children who wish they had the toys that a friend received. It may be the contempt of teenagers, who doesn’t want to listen to the parents and may grow angry at them for a bad day at school. It may be the sins that afflict adults, that rush into the vacuum left by the disappearing holiday cheer: lust, anxiety, selfishness, abrasiveness, a whole host of sins. Sins that don’t really shock us anymore because they’re just a part of who we are. And frankly, these are the dangerous sins. When sins trouble us, we repent of them. When they don’t trouble us, we dismiss them and do not seek forgiveness. But the Lord still calls them sin and calls us to repentance. For the wages of these sins, too, is death.

And the Lord also bids you to remember His trip to Egypt; because, you see, He is not just living a perfect and sinless life for the Israelites of old. He is doing that for you, too.

So that toddlers may be forgiven of their angry power-plays, Jesus perfectly and serenely submits to His parents. He then takes the punishment for angry power plays by submitting Himself to death on the cross. So that children can be forgiven for their covetousness, Jesus lives a perfect life of contentment. He then takes the judgment for their sin by giving up even His life at Calvary. So that teenagers can be forgiven for contempt and disrespect, He remains perfectly subservient to His parents through His adolescent years. Then He goes to the cross and accepts the blame for all the sins of the world.

For all of those grown-up sins that are so commonplace, He lives an adult life of perfect purity, trust, service, kindness, and holiness. Then He accepts the wrath of God and pays the price for all vice, wretchedness, unholiness, and iniquity. He doesn’t do this to set an example—we already have God’s Law to tell us what to do, and we cannot do it. He does not do this to set you up, to say, “Ha! It can be done, so you’d better get on the ball!” He lives that perfect life for you!

And He declares to you today, “Repent and remember my perfect life and my terrible death. I’ve lived that perfect life to give you the credit for it. I’ve died that death to save you the punishment. Therefore, I do not see your sin and shame —I’ve taken it away! Instead I see only perfect holiness, because I lived and died to give it to you.”

So hear the story of the Toddler Jesus, on His way to Egypt and back. Hear and marvel, because that 2-year-old is doing what you cannot do, and He’s doing it for your salvation. He fulfills prophecies at that young age, proving even then that He is the Savior that the prophets foretold.

And as He does so, He is living for you. So that He might die for you … And rise for you … And live for you once more, so He can declare that you are forgiven for all of your sins.

In the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. Amen.

Unless otherwise indicated, all Scripture quotations are from the Holy Bible, English Standard Version, copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers. Used by permission. All rights reserved.

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Sermons, Uncategorized

Sent to Preserve a Remnant for Life

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“Having become the favorite the Pharaoh, Joseph’s brothers come to Egypt to request food supplies for their country suffering from famine. He makes himself known to them and pardons them (Genesis XLV, 1-8)” by Marc Chagall

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So Joseph said to his brothers, “Come near to me, please.” And they came near. And he said, “I am your brother, Joseph, whom you sold into Egypt. And now do not be distressed or angry with yourselves because you sold me here, for God sent me before you to preserve life. For the famine has been in the land these two years, and there are yet five years in which there will be neither plowing nor harvest. And God sent me before you to preserve for you a remnant on earth, and to keep alive for you many survivors. So it was not you who sent me here, but God. He has made me a father to Pharaoh, and lord of all his house and ruler over all the land of Egypt. (Genesis 45:4-8).

Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ!

A band of brothers have been keeping a shameful secret. Now, as the saying goes, “the chickens are coming home to roost.”

These brothers, the sons of Jacob, haven’t seen their younger brother, Joseph, in over twenty years. He was barely old enough to shave when they, fueled by jealousy and hatred, had sold him to slave-traders, then covered up their crime by faking his death. For all they know, Joseph is nothing but dust in the Egyptian wind by now, driven to an early death by the rigors of servitude.

But dead or alive, Joseph is a daily living reality in the consciences of his brothers. More than two decades after they’d tossed him into a pit, his cries for mercy are still echoing in the depths of their souls. More than two decades after they’d sat around that pit and ate a meal together, they can still taste the bitter memory of their heartless deed. More than two decades after their despicable deed, they still remember handing their father Joseph’s bloody robe and letting the old man think his favorite son had met his demise at the hand of some feral beast. Now, their shared secret stalks them night and day.

So pervasive is its influence upon them that when they experience trouble, they trace its ultimate source to the betrayal of their brother. When they kneel before the second-in-command of all Egypt and he accuses them of being spies and demands they bring their youngest brother down to Egypt as proof of their honesty, they lament to one another, “In truth we are guilty concerning our brother, in that we saw the distress of his soul, when he begged us and we did not listen. That is why this distress has come upon us” (Genesis 42:21). In their minds, that dirty little secret from over two decades earlier is coming back to haunt them.

Once again, out of necessity because of the continuing famine, the ten plus their baby brother Benjamin find themselves kneeling in the presence of this powerful man, and he is making life difficult for them. Judah, evidently learning something from his past sins, refuses to leave Benjamin behind, because he knows that returning without him would likely be the last nail in his old father’s coffin. Instead, he begs to take Benjamin’s place himself.

The tender scene that is about to unfold in that room is much too private to be shared with outsiders. The man therefore dismisses everybody but the brothers. Then he breaks down and weeps aloud. The strangeness, sternness, and sharpness are gone from his voice now, as he speaks to the brothers in Hebrew, no longer through an interpreter. “I am Joseph!” he says. “Is my father alive?”

Imagine the shock and terror, when they hear him say, “I am Joseph!” Sin is the great destroyer, the great tension maker. Until the brothers have been assured that the barrier between them and him is gone, they will have no peace of mind.

“Come near to me, please,” Joseph urges. We can easily imagine how the brothers have kept their distance. Joseph now shows them not only with words but with actions that he feels no bitterness toward them, that he has only feelings of love toward them. There is no sadness, no anger in his heart; there should be none in theirs, now that God has given them back to one another.

Through the eyes of faith, Joseph has been able to recognize what God has been working to achieve. Using such unlikely building materials as the hateful and misguided actions of the brothers two decades earlier, God has constructed a plan to save many lives, including the lives of the important family still living in famine-plagued Canaan. “God sent me to preserve life,” Joseph tells them. “God sent me before you to preserve for you a remnant on earth.” Here is the key to the entire narrative. The brothers had sold Joseph to Egypt out of hatred and spite. God overruled their evil intent, using their action to preserve a remnant, a precious handful of His people, through a crisis that now threatened them with annihilation.

There is no time to waste. For five more years, the famine in Canaan is only going to grow more severe. Joseph’s main concern is for his aged father, who has already mourned the loss of his son for twenty years, and who, no doubt, is waiting anxiously for the brothers’ return. “Hurry and go up to my father and say to him, ‘Thus says your son Joseph, God has made me lord of all Egypt. Come down to me; do not tarry. You shall live in the land of Goshen, and you shall be near me, you and your children and your children’s children.’”

The words keep pouring from Joseph’s lips, because he can see his brothers are having difficulty believing their long-lost brother is not only still alive but is their friend. He is not a powerful man who will take revenge long overdue, but a loving brother who wants only to reconcile. Joseph speaks directly to them in their own language, they hear him with their own ears and see him with their own eyes.

Then Joseph lets his arms do the talking. He embraces each of his brothers warmly, until finally the brothers find their voices and speak to him. Tears flow freely, and built-up tensions flow out of them. Up until this time, the brothers have remained silent. Most likely fear and shock have taken their tongue. Or perhaps, they were wondering who is going to tell Dad, and how they might spin it so it did not lay blame at their feet. Finally, the brothers begin to speak to him.

Perhaps you know how those brothers felt. Tucked away in the deep recesses of your being is that dirty little secret that you’ve been carrying around for years. At times you forget it’s there. Then a certain person’s name will come up, or you’ll see something that triggers the memory. Then you’ll feel your secret reach out with two long-nailed fingers and pinch your soul, just to remind you it’s still there.

On other days, your secret seems to have bonded with the beat of your heart, so that like Poe’s villain in the Tell-Tale Heart, the raging pulse of your secret seems obvious to everyone around you. Moreover, it can form a film around your eyes, so that everything is filtered and interpreted through it. When something bad happens, you assume it’s due to your secret. You tell others it’s bad karma or bad luck, but you suspect it’s not. It’s the ghost of your secret, coming back to haunt you, to demand resolution and restitution.

Here’s something for you to ponder. In fact, I suspect you already know this, but let me say it out loud to confirm it: the secret about secrets is that they don’t exist. There is no such thing in all the world as a secret. You see, a secret is no longer a secret when two people know it. And even if you have been so careful as to hide it from the public, from your closest friends, even from your spouse, there is One who knows. He searches the hearts and minds of humanity. He brings out of the darkness what we have hidden: He places our secret sins in the light of His presence (Psalm 90:8). God knows your secret, and because you know that He knows, you ought to just go ahead and admit the fact that you have no secrets.

What you do have is something that humanity has always struggled with ever since the fall: a guilty conscience.

Maybe you can relate more readily with Joseph. You’ve felt firsthand the betrayal of someone close to you. Maybe you’ve even asked the question, “Why did this terrible thing happen to me?” Theologians calls this the problem of evil. How can a good, loving, all-powerful God let horrible things happen?

I’m going to be honest and say right now that there is no truly satisfactory answer to that question this side of heaven. We go on as Christians, not because we fully understand God and His ways, but because we see His true heart in Jesus our Savior. In spite of evil, we know God is good—because we see Jesus. We know He loves us—because Jesus died and rose for us. We continue to walk, even through darkness, because of Jesus. There is no other answer.

But there is another question, a perhaps more pertinent question, and that question might be phrased this way: “What can God do with this evil? What new, good thing can God create using this terrible thing?”

By faith, Joseph came to the conclusion God is able to bring good out of evil. Yes, he had suffered. He’d been falsely accused and thrown into prison. Because long ago, Joseph’s brothers had sold him as a slave into Egypt, he was now in a position to offer help others in a big way. That doesn’t make what Joseph’s brothers did to him any less evil. Kidnapping is kidnapping; selling your brother as a slave will never be on the list of good, moral examples to imitate. But God used that great evil to bring about salvation for many people.

A guilty conscience, the brokenness of abuse and the bitterness of betrayal. Both can lead to fractured relationships and trust issues. Both can lead you away from God. Fortunately, the remedy for both maladies is found in the same place—the cross and the Gospel of Jesus Christ. The Gospel is for those plagued with guilty consciences and those who have suffered abuse at the hands of others.

The Gospel in this story is the clear example it provides of the providence of God. Our God oversees all things—even evil things contrary to His will—to ensure that they serve His will and saving purposes. Three times in this text Joseph makes this point: “God sent me before you to preserve life” (v 5); “God sent me before you to preserve a remnant on earth, and to keep alive for you many survivors” (v 7); and “So it was not you who sent me here, but God” (v 8).

The theology is obvious: God is in control—so much so, that He can even use evil to accomplish His purposes. And what is God’s purpose in this case? “To preserve a remnant on earth, and to keep alive for you many survivors.” In using terms like remnant and survivors, Joseph is employing words that elsewhere in the Old Testament are freighted with theological significance. It may well be that in the deliverance of his brothers and his father, Joseph perceives that far more is at stake than the physical survival of twelve human beings and their children. What survives is God’s plan of redemption through a remnant of His chosen people.

The remnant motif begins early in Genesis with Noah and his family and carries through all of Scripture. Despite the threats of their enemies, the failings of their own sinful flesh, Yahweh, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob preserves a remnant of His people to complete His promise of the Messiah. Joseph is called upon to play an integral role in the preservation of this remnant, which includes his brothers and their children. From these few people eventually comes the whole nation of Israel—and from Israel, our Savior, Jesus Christ.

Joseph is a type of Christ, one who foreshadows the person and work of our Savior in his own person and work. There are a number of parallels between the two. Both are sent to Egypt against their will: Joseph’s brothers being responsible for his exile there, Herod being responsible for Jesus’ flight there. Joseph is sold into slavery and Christ is delivered to the executioners, Joseph for twenty pieces of silver (Genesis 37:28) and Jesus for thirty pieces of silver (Matthew 26:15), yet in both cases good comes out of evil: the deliverance of Joseph’s family in the first instance, the salvation of the world in the second.

As Joseph forgives his brothers, so Christ cries out from the cross, “Father, forgive them for they know not what they do.” And both Joseph and Christ, though rejected by their brothers, become the head of the corner of their respective spheres, but still are not ashamed to call their brothers brethren (Hebrews 2:11).

Joseph’s brothers deserved death, but what they received was forgiveness and life—and the life of others. Though their motives and actions were indeed evil, God used it for good. For the saving of the lives of many people, but even more important, the salvation of the world unto eternal life.

God can bring good out of our own evils as well. We may not see how He can do this right now; we may never see it in this world. And that’s hard. But in the end, it’s okay—because we know God’s true heart toward us as we see it in the life, death, and resurrection of our dear Lord Jesus. There on the cross, we see the greatest injustice, the greatest evil done toward the only one whom is truly good, and God turns it into the greatest good ever—the salvation of the world.

Your inheritance as a child of Adam is sin and death, but in Christ you are made alive through His resurrection from the dead (1 Cor. 15:21–22). As you have died with Him in Holy Baptism, so are you raised with Him to newness of life. Instead of serving your desires and harming your neighbors, you live as “sons of the Most High.” You are “merciful, even as your Father is merciful” (Luke 6:35–36). You deal with others as you would have them deal with you (Luke 6:37–38).

As Christ loved you when you were at enmity with Him, as He blessed and prayed for those who abused Him, and as He did good to those who hated Him and hurt Him, so also you “love your enemies, do good to those who hate you” (Luke 6:27–29, 35). For God sent His Son to bear the cross and suffer death, not to condemn the guilty, but “to preserve life.” So does He provide a place for you within His Church, where He is near and deals kindly with “you and your children and your children’s children” (Gen. 45:5–10), giving you forgiveness, salvation, and eternal life. Indeed, for Jesus’ sake, you are forgiven for all of your sins.

In the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. Amen.

 

Unless otherwise indicated, all Scripture quotations are from the Holy Bible, English Standard Version, copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers. Used by permission. All rights reserved.